Babb, Florence. 2011. The Tourism Encounter: Fashioning Latin American Nations and Histories. Stanford, CA: Stanford U. Press
Ecotourism: history, policy, business and case studies
Florence Babb tackles the topic of tourism developing in countries that held the off-limits status. These countries include Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua and Peru. This book reveals complex stories of people linked with trade and how this drastic change in tourism shifts world tourism.
Buckley, Ralf. 2010. Conservation Tourism. U.K.: CABI Publ.
Fennell, David and Ross K. Dowling. Ecotourism Policy and Planning. U.K.: CABI Publ.
This book expands on the negative impacts of global tourism. While tourism provides a broader cultural awareness and a trend for sustained economic growth it also distresses the natural environment. Ultimately, tourism policy makers need to consider new approaches to help ensure local people, the environment, business and tourists stay unaffected by the the negative impacts of tourism.
Haddad, A., and S. Doggett, eds. 1997. Brazil: True Stories of Life on the Road. San Francisco: Travelers’ Tales Inc.
This article chronicles a dinner she was invited to at Marcos and Marinha Nascimento’s house which was in Brazil.This helps to illuminate two different cultures coming together and learning from each other. It also illustrates the author Terri Hinte’s love for Samba.
Mathiessen, Peter. 1978. The Snow Leopard. New York: Penguin Books.
This book shows Peter Mathiessen and field biologist George Schaller studying the Himalayan Blue Sheep and the hard to find Snow Leopard in Nepal. Mathiessen is also on a spiritual quest to find the Lama of Shey. This shows an outer and inner journey where the author finds more about himself then he thought he would.
Strayed, Cheryl. 2011. Wild: from Lost to Found on the P.C.T. New York: Vintage Books.
This documents a young woman, Cheryl Strayed, who is going through a tough time in her life and decides to hike thousands of miles. Her mother died when she was 22 and her marriage quickly falls apart as well so she saw this as an opportunity for growth and change. This was a risky endeavor since she was doing it alone and she also experience. Through this journey from California to Washington she uncovers who she truly is and ultimately becomes a stronger version of herself.
Although there are many different types of adventure travel, typically an adventure travel experience will:
Be of a heightened nature – a stimulating context will induce a range of emotions (of which excitement will be key), and separate it from everyday life.
Entail intellectual, physical or emotional risks and challenges – these will be absorbing
Be intrinsically rewarding, providing opportunities for enjoyment, learning and self-development. (Swarbrooke 16)
Another way to define adventure travel is,”a leisure activity that takes place in an unusual, exotic, remote or wilderness destination. It tends to be associated with high levels of activity by the participant in an outdoor setting. Adventure travelers expect to experience various levels of risk, excitement and tranquility, and be personal tested. In particular they are explorers of unspoiled, exotic parts of the planet and also seek personal challenges”(Millington et al., 2001: 67).
The two main types of adventure travel are soft adventure travel and hard adventure travel.
Soft adventure travel, “refers to activities with a perceived risk but low levels of real risk, requiring minimal commitment and beginning skills; most of these activities are led by experienced guides.”
Hard adventure travel, “refers to activities with high levels of risk, requiring intense commitment and advanced skills.” (source: Hill, 1995).
“Since the discovery of Galapagos in 1535, humans have brought many alien species to the islands—some intentionally, including goats, pigs, cats, and both ornamental and food plants (vegetables and fruits), to name a few—while others, including rodents, insects, and weedy plants, have been carried to the islands accidentally.” They have had to go through great effort to preserve the environment for future generations.
The Art of Flight:
A Snowboard Movie by Red Bull Media House
This film is epic. Travis Rice and other famous snowboarders travel in a three year journey through the Americas.They conquer enormous mountains throughout Nelson, British Columbia, Revelstoke, British Columbia, Patagonia, Chile, Jackson, Wyoming, Aspen, Colorado, and the uncharted wilderness in Alaska. Throughout their journey, they encounter volcanic ash, massive ice chunks, and numerous wild animals. The filmography is top-knotch.
“According to a recent study, the roughly 151,000 people who visit Yellowstone National Park each year to see wolves bring in $35 million annually to Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, which is multiplied several times within the local economies.”
@5:15 on the CBS video they discuss how they are spraying the Florida Keys to reduce mosquito populations to extend their tourism period to year round.